Gut microbiota interacts with host immune system in ways that influence the development of disease. Advances in respiratory immune system also broaden our knowledge of the interaction between host and microbiome in the lung. Increasing evidence indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Exacerbations of chronic gut and lung disease have been shown to share key conceptual features with the disorder and dysregulation of the microbial ecosystem. In this review, we discuss the impact of gut and lung microbiota on disease exacerbation and progression, and the recent understanding of the immunological link between the gut and the lung, the gut-lung axis.
Keywords: Common mucosal immune; gut–lung axis; microbiota.