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Review
. 2017 Feb;182(1-2):77-86.
doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-0082-8. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

The Changing Face of Dermatophytic Infections Worldwide

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Review

The Changing Face of Dermatophytic Infections Worldwide

Ping Zhan et al. Mycopathologia. .

Abstract

Dermatophytes evolve along with the geography and socioeconomic conditions. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton schoenleinii acted as the major pathogens of superficial fungal diseases 100 years ago, but their frequency decreased dramatically since the middle of the twentieth century and they are limited to some less-developed countries nowadays; meanwhile, frequency of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis increased gradually, and these fungi have become the major species globally. Some other dermatophytes, i.e., Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum and Microsporum ferrugineum, are mainly endemic in some parts of Africa, Asia and Europe. At present, T. rubrum is the leading pathogen for skin and nail fungal infections, whereas M. canis, T. tonsurans and T. violaceum present as the predominant dermatophytes involved in tinea capitis. Population mobility, changes in human lifestyle and advents of antifungal drugs will continually drive the dermatophyte evolution in the skin microenvironment. Comprehensive observation is needed to better understand this kind of organisms and prospect the trends of their changes in future.

Keywords: Dermatophytes; Epidemiology; Evolution; Tinea.

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