A Gata2-Dependent Transcription Network Regulates Uterine Progesterone Responsiveness and Endometrial Function

Cell Rep. 2016 Oct 25;17(5):1414-1425. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.09.093.


Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2) are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen signaling. Gata2 deficiency results in reduced progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and attenuated progesterone signaling, as evidenced by genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. GATA2 not only occupies at and promotes expression of the Pgr gene but also regulates downstream progesterone responsive genes in conjunction with the PGR. Additionally, Gata2 knockout uteri exhibit abnormal luminal epithelia with ectopic TRP63 expressing squamous cells and a cancer-related molecular profile in a progesterone-independent manner. Lastly, we found a conserved GATA2-PGR regulatory network in both human and mice based on gene signature and path analyses using gene expression profiles of human endometrial tissues. In conclusion, uterine Gata2 regulates a key regulatory network of gene expression for progesterone signaling at the early pregnancy stage.

Keywords: GATA2; TRP63; endometrium; infertility; path analysis; pregnancy; progesterone; progesterone receptor; structural equation modeling; uterus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Conserved Sequence / genetics
  • Embryo Implantation
  • Endometrium / metabolism*
  • Female
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Pregnancy
  • Progesterone / blood
  • Progesterone / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding / genetics
  • Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


  • GATA2 Transcription Factor
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • TP63 protein, human
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Trp63 protein, mouse
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Progesterone