HIV-associated opportunistic CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

Nat Rev Neurol. 2016 Oct 27;12(11):662-674. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.149.


Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis. ART in the setting of these opportunistic infections can lead to a paradoxical worsening caused by an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this Review, we discuss several of the most common CNS opportunistic infections: cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), tuberculous meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis and cytomegalovirus infection, with an emphasis on clinical pearls, pathological findings, MRI findings and treatment. Moreover, we discuss the risk factors, pathophysiology and management of IRIS. We also summarize the challenges that remain in management of CNS opportunistic infections, which includes the lack of phase II and III clinical trials, absence of antimicrobials for infections such as PML, and controversy regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of IRIS.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections* / diagnosis
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections* / etiology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections* / diagnosis
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections* / etiology
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome* / etiology
  • Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal* / diagnosis
  • Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal* / etiology
  • Meningitis, Cryptococcal* / diagnosis
  • Meningitis, Cryptococcal* / etiology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral* / diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral* / etiology
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal* / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal* / etiology