Purpose: To evaluate rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes with retinoblastoma after intraarterial chemotherapy (IAC).
Design: Retrospective case series.
Methods: Chart review.
Main outcome measure: Development of RRD in the IAC era.
Results: Of 167 eyes in 157 consecutive patients, mean patient age at diagnosis of retinoblastoma was 19 months. Intraarterial chemotherapy was primary (75/167, 45%) or secondary (92/167, 55%). There were 10 eyes (10/167, 6%) that developed RRD after IAC. The RRD was mostly related to rapid tumor regression with atrophic retinal hole, occurring within one month (n = 8) or 12 months (n = 2) of IAC. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was found after primary (6/75, 8%) or secondary (4/92, 4%) IAC. Of primary cases, RRD was found in Group D (1/38 [3%], P = 0.1075) or Group E (5/30 [17%], P = 0.0348). For primary IAC (n = 75 eyes), RRD was found in endophytic (5/22 [23%], P = 0.0073), exophytic (0/29 [0%], P = 0.0760), or combined endophytic/exophytic pattern (1/24 [4%], P = 0.6575). A comparison of eyes with RRD (n = 10) versus without RRD (n = 157) found significant differences including greater mean age at presentation (38 vs. 18 months, P = 0.0522), greater 4-quadrant vitreous seeding (5/10, 50% vs. 27/157, 17%, P = 0.0236), and absence of subretinal fluid (3/10, 30% vs. 102/157, 65%, P = 0.0236). The cause of RRD was tumor regression-related atrophic retinal hole(s) in 7 (7/10, 70%) (unifocal [1/10, 10%] or multifocal [6/10, 60%] holes), cryotherapy-induced single atrophic hole in 2 (2/10, 20%), and single flap-tear from posterior vitreous detachment in one (1/10, 10%). In 4 (4/10, 40%) eyes with RRD, proliferative vitreoretinopathy was noted. The RRD was not related to intravitreal injection in any case, as in primary IAC no case had previous injection and in secondary IAC the injections were performed many months previously. Primary RRD repair involved pars plana vitrectomy in three, scleral buckle without drainage in one, laser barricade in one, and observation in five eyes. After 24 months mean follow-up, the retina showed complete reattachment (3/10, 30%), partial reattachment (2/10, 20%), and persistent detachment in all observed eyes (5/10, 50%). Enucleation was necessary for tumor recurrence (4/10, 40%) or neovascular glaucoma (1/10, 10%). There were no tumor-related metastases or death.
Conclusion: After IAC for retinoblastoma, RRD occurs in 6%, mostly in advanced eyes with extensive endophytic tumor and generally from atrophic retinal hole after rapid tumor regression.