WERAM: a database of writers, erasers and readers of histone acetylation and methylation in eukaryotes

Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Jan 4;45(D1):D264-D270. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw1011. Epub 2016 Oct 26.


In this work, we developed a database WERAM (http://weram.biocuckoo.org/) for histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone demethylases and acetyl- or methyl-binding proteins, which catalyze, remove and recognize histone acetylation and methylation sites as 'writers', 'erasers' and 'readers', and synergistically determine the 'histone code'. From the scientific literature, we totally collected over 580 experimentally identified histone regulators from eight model organisms, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae We also collected ∼900 site-specific regulator-histone relations from the eight species. According to the experimental evidence, known histone regulators were classified into distinct families. To computationally detect more proteins in eukaryotes, we constructed hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles for histone regulator families. For families without HMM profiles, we also conducted orthologous searches. Totally, WERAM database contained more than 20 thousand non-redundant histone regulators from 148 eukaryotes. The detailed annotations and classification information of histone regulators were provided, together with site-specific histone substrates if available.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Eukaryota / metabolism*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genomics / methods
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Methylation
  • Web Browser


  • Histones