Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students

J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2016 Fall;30(4):311-317. doi: 10.11607/ofph.1674.


Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland.

Methods: The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors.

Results: Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10).

Conclusion: Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bruxism / diagnosis*
  • Bruxism / epidemiology
  • Diagnostic Self Evaluation*
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Self Report*
  • Students
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / epidemiology
  • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome
  • Universities
  • Young Adult