Exophiala dermatitidis and Exophiala jeanselmei share similar morphological features and have been confused with each other. To clarify the relationship between the two fungi, we conducted a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridization study using a dot blot method. Between E. dermatitidis and E. jeanselmei, only a very low level of DNA relatedness was seen and it was confirmed that these two fungi are distinct species based on DNA similarity. Close correspondence of DNA from the isolates of E. dermatitidis was obtained, whereas the isolates of E. jeanselmei were divided into 6 groups according to their DNA similarity and a possibility was shown that E. jeanselmei is composed of genetically heterogeneous groups. The subdivision of the species E. jeanselmei by the DNA-DNA hybridization method was in agreement with serotyping exoantigens. This result suggests that DNA-DNA hybridization studies provide an excellent tool for the identification and grouping of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi.