Effect of Enzyme Pre-treatments on Bioactive Compounds in Extracted Tiger Nut Oil and Sugars in Residual Meals

J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2016;93(11):1541-1549. doi: 10.1007/s11746-016-2883-9. Epub 2016 Aug 26.


Tiger nut oil is a novel oil that requires more research data on its characteristics. In this study, the oil was extracted using both enzyme-aided pressing (EAP) and aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) methods. Using enzymes as a pre-treatment prior to mechanical pressing increased the concentration of some phenolic acids and tocopherols present in extracted oils compared to controls. High pressure processing as a pre-treatment before aqueous enzymatic extraction also enhanced tocopherols and total polyphenolic content in oils. The percentage free fatty acid and peroxide values indicated that under the initial extraction parameters, the oils were stable and they all met the standards for virgin olive oil set by the International Olive Oil Council. Residual meals from both extraction processes contained low protein contents ranging from 2.4 to 4.6 %. Additionally, EAP and AEE meals contained low DP (degree of polymerisation) sugars that appeared as 1-kestose (DP3) and nystose (DP4). EAP had the highest total DP3 and DP4 sugar content of 82.5 mg/g. These sugars would need further assessment to verify their identity and determine their suitability as a potential food.

Keywords: Enzymes; High pressure processing; Pressing; Sugars; Tiger nut oil.