PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation

Nat Commun. 2016 Oct 31;7:12849. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12849.


Despite the global impact of macrophage activation in vascular disease, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show, with global proteomic analysis of macrophage cell lines treated with either IFNγ or IL-4, that PARP9 and PARP14 regulate macrophage activation. In primary macrophages, PARP9 and PARP14 have opposing roles in macrophage activation. PARP14 silencing induces pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells, whereas it suppresses anti-inflammatory gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in M(IL-4) cells. PARP9 silencing suppresses pro-inflammatory genes and STAT1 phosphorylation in M(IFNγ) cells. PARP14 induces ADP-ribosylation of STAT1, which is suppressed by PARP9. Mutations at these ADP-ribosylation sites lead to increased phosphorylation. Network analysis links PARP9-PARP14 with human coronary artery disease. PARP14 deficiency in haematopoietic cells accelerates the development and inflammatory burden of acute and chronic arterial lesions in mice. These findings suggest that PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ADP-Ribosylation
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cell Survival
  • Coronary Artery Disease / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Interleukin-4 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / metabolism
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • RNA Interference
  • Ribose / chemistry
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor / metabolism*
  • THP-1 Cells


  • IL4 protein, human
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • PARP9 protein, human
  • STAT1 Transcription Factor
  • STAT1 protein, human
  • Stat1 protein, mouse
  • Interleukin-4
  • Ribose
  • Interferon-gamma
  • PARP14 protein, human
  • Parp14 protein, mouse
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases