Background: Previous studies in adult hemodialysis patients have shown that African-American and Hispanic patients have a lower risk of mortality in addition to a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation. However, studies of the association between race and outcomes in pediatric dialysis are sparse and often do not examine outcomes in Hispanic children. The objective was to determine if racial-ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes exist in pediatric dialysis patients.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,697 pediatric dialysis patients (aged 0-20 years) from a large national dialysis organization (entry period 2001-2011) of non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Hispanic race-ethnicity. Associations between race-ethnicity with mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes were examined separately using competing risks methods. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between race-ethnicity, with outcomes within 1 year of dialysis initiation.
Results: Of the 2,697 pediatric patients in this cohort, 895 were African-American, 778 were Hispanic, and 1,024 were non-Hispanic white. After adjusting for baseline demographics, competing risk survival analysis revealed that compared with non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans had a 64 % higher mortality risk (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.64; 95 % CI 1.24-2.17), whereas Hispanics had a 31 % lower mortality risk (HR = 0.69; 95 % CI 0.47-1.01) that did not reach statistical significance. African-Americans also had higher odds of 1-year mortality after starting dialysis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; 95 % CI 0.95-4.58), whereas both African-Americans and Hispanics had a lower odds of receiving a transplant within 1 year of starting dialysis (OR = 0.28; 95 % CI 0.19-0.41 and OR = 0.43; 95 % CI 0.31-0.59 respectively).
Conclusion: In contrast to adults, African-American pediatric dialysis patients have worse survival than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, whereas Hispanics have a similar to lower mortality risk. Both African-American and Hispanic pediatric dialysis patients had a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation than non-Hispanic whites, similar to observations in the adult dialysis population.
Keywords: African–American; Dialysis; End-stage renal disease; Ethnicity; Hispanic; Mortality; Pediatric; Race; Transplant.