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Review
, 18 (12), 120

Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review

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Review

Anxiety and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review

Phillip J Tully et al. Curr Cardiol Rep.

Abstract

Unrecognized anxiety is a difficult clinical presentation in cardiology. Anxiety leads to recurring emergency department visits and the need for numerous diagnostic evaluations to rule out cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review focuses broadly on anxiety and its subtypes in relation to the onset and progression of CVD while describing helpful guidelines to better identify and treat anxiety. Potential mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis are also described. An emerging literature demonstrates that anxiety disorders increase the risk for incident CVD but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Anxiety portends adverse prognosis in persons with established CVD that is independent from depression. The level of clinical priority received by depression should be extended to research and clinical intervention efforts in anxiety. Anxiety holds direct relevance for uncovering mechanisms of cardiopathogenesis, developing novel therapeutic strategies, and initiating clinical interventions in the population at risk of developing heart disease, or those already diagnosed with CVD.

Keywords: Anxiety disorders; Cardiovascular disease; Review; Risk factor.

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