Skin integrity is essential for protection from external stress and trauma. Defects in structural proteins such as keratins cause skin fragility, epitomized by epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a life-threatening disorder. Here we show that dominant mutations of KLHL24, encoding a cullin 3-RBX1 ubiquitin ligase substrate receptor, cause EB. We have identified start-codon mutations in the KLHL24 gene in five patients with EB. These mutations lead to truncated KLHL24 protein lacking the initial 28 amino acids (KLHL24-ΔN28). KLHL24-ΔN28 is more stable than its wild-type counterpart owing to abolished autoubiquitination. We have further identified keratin 14 (KRT14) as a KLHL24 substrate and found that KLHL24-ΔN28 induces excessive ubiquitination and degradation of KRT14. Using a knock-in mouse model, we have confirmed that the Klhl24 mutations lead to stabilized Klhl24-ΔN28 and cause Krt14 degradation. Our findings identify a new disease-causing mechanism due to dysregulation of autoubiquitination and open new avenues for the treatment of related disorders.