Vitamin D3 Treatment Influences PGE2 and TGFβ in Normal and Increased Breast Cancer Risk Women

Anticancer Res. 2016 Oct;36(10):5347-5353. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.11108.


Background/aim: We reported that vitamin D3 increased transforming growth factor (TGF)β2 and decreased prostaglandin (PG)E2 in the breast of normal-risk women, suggesting a protective effect. We determined if the findings held for higher risk women.

Patients and methods: Seventy-eight women received daily for one month/menstrual cycle: placebo, 400 international units (IU) vitamin D3, 2,000 IU vitamin D3 or 2,000 IU vitamin D3/400 mg celecoxib. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and/or serum were analyzed for PGE2, TGFβ1,-2, vitaminD binding protein (DBP) 25(OH)D; and plasma for celecoxib.

Results: 25(OH)D increased (p<0.001) in women receiving 2,000 IU vitamin D3. Two thousand IU vitamin D3 lowered NAF PGE2 in normal-risk women (p=0.029), whereas 2,000 IU vitamin D3/celecoxib lowered NAF PGE2 in high-risk women (p=0.063). Serum TGFβ1 was influenced by treatment (p=0.011). NAF TGFβ2 increase correlated with increase in 25(OH)D. DBP serum levels were higher than matched NAF, regardless of race, and did not appreciably change with treatment.

Conclusion: Vitamin D3 influenced TGFβ1 and -β2 expression. PGE2 response to vitamin D3 treatment was influenced by a participant's breast cancer risk. The implications of these observations regarding breast cancer risk should be further evaluated.

Keywords: Vitamin D; breast cancer prevention; prostaglandin inhibition; transforming growth factor beta.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage
  • Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use*
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Dinoprostone