Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis

PLoS One. 2016 Nov 1;11(11):e0165588. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165588. eCollection 2016.


South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1-OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5-100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / immunology
  • Propolis / chemistry
  • Propolis / pharmacology*
  • Pseudomonas Infections / drug therapy
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Streptococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • Streptococcus / drug effects
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • NF-kappa B
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Propolis

Grant support

Grant # 2010/52679-9 - Fundação do Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - - APT. Grant # 2011/50651-2 Fundação do Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - - SMA. Grant # 472848/2011-9 Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - - SMA.