Ibrutinib efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia following allogeneic HCT

Blood. 2016 Dec 22;128(25):2899-2908. doi: 10.1182/blood-2016-06-715284. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Abstract

Ibrutinib, a potent and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of both Bruton's tyrosine kinase and interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK), has been used to treat relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Here, we present 27 patients with relapsed CLL following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who subsequently received ibrutinib salvage therapy. Sixteen of these patients were part of multi-institutional clinical trials and achieved an overall response rate of 87.5%. An additional 11 patients were treated at Stanford University following US Food and Drug Administration approval of ibrutinib; 7 (64%) achieved a complete response, and 3 (27%) achieved a partial response. Of the 9 patients treated at Stanford who had mixed chimerism-associated CLL relapse, 4 (44%) converted to full donor chimerism following ibrutinib initiation, in association with disease response. Four of 11 (36%) patients evaluated by ClonoSeq achieved minimal residual disease negativity with CLL <1/10 000 white blood cells, which persisted even after ibrutinib was discontinued, in 1 case even after 26 months. None of the 27 patients developed graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) following ibrutinib initiation. We postulate that ibrutinib augments the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) benefit through a T-cell-mediated effect, most likely due to ITK inhibition. To investigate the immune modulatory effects of ibrutinib, we completed comprehensive immune phenotype characterization of peripheral B and T cells from treated patients. Our results show that ibrutinib selectively targets pre-germinal B cells and depletes Th2 helper cells. Furthermore, these effects persisted after drug discontinuation. In total, our results provide evidence that ibrutinib effectively augments GVL without causing GVHD.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • B-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • B-Lymphocytes / pathology
  • Chimerism
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Germinal Center / pathology
  • Graft vs Host Disease / etiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy*
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm, Residual / pathology
  • Pyrazoles / adverse effects*
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology
  • Pyrazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Pyrimidines / adverse effects*
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacology
  • Pyrimidines / therapeutic use*
  • Recurrence
  • Th2 Cells / drug effects
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Tissue Donors
  • Transplantation, Homologous / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Withholding Treatment

Substances

  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyrimidines
  • ibrutinib