National trends of hepatitis B and C during pregnancy across sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors, United States, 1998-2011

J Med Virol. 2017 Jun;89(6):1025-1032. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24725. Epub 2016 Nov 10.


Currently, data examining nationally representative prevalence and trends of HBV or HCV among specific subgroups of pregnant women in the US are unavailable. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hospitalizations for liveborn singleton deliveries from 1998 to 2011 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. After identifying deliveries with HBV, HCV, and HIV infection during pregnancy, survey logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. Temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression. The rates of HBV and HCV were 85.8 and 118.6 per 100,000 deliveries, respectively; however, there was substantial variation across maternal and hospital factors. The HBV rate increased from 57.8 in 1998 to 105.0 in 2011, resulting in an annual increase of 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8-7.3). The HCV rate increased fivefold, from 42.0 in 1998 to over 210 in 2011. These trends were observed for nearly every population subgroup. However, we did observe differences in the degree to which hepatitis during pregnancy was becoming more prevalent. The increasing national trend in the prevalence of hepatitis among pregnant women was particularly concerning among already high-risk groups. This underscores the need for coordinated approaches-encompassing culturally-appropriate health education/risk-reduction programs, and increased vaccination and screening efforts-championed by health providers. J. Med. Virol. 89:1025-1032, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: disparities; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; pregnancy; temporal trends.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Behavior
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult