Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera in Downregulating the NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

Molecules. 2016 Oct 31;21(11):1452. doi: 10.3390/molecules21111452.


In the present investigation, we prepared four different solvent fractions (chloroform, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate) of Moringa oleifera extract to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential and cellular mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Cell cytotoxicity assay suggested that the solvent fractions were not cytotoxic to macrophages at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner and was more effective than the other fractions. Immunoblot observations revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of the inhibitor of κB (IκBα) and blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Keywords: IκBα; RAW264.7 cells; inflammation; inflammatory mediators; proinflammatory cytokines.

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity*
  • Mice
  • Moringa oleifera / chemistry*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / pharmacology
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*


  • Acetates
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • ethyl acetate