Introducing the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS): A Concise, Interdisciplinary, and Easy-to-Score Survey

CBE Life Sci Educ. 2016 Winter;15(4):ar53. doi: 10.1187/cbe.15-09-0193.


Researchers, administrators, and policy makers need valid and reliable information about teaching practices. The Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS) is designed to measure the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors from any discipline. The PIPS has 24 instructional practice statements and nine demographic questions. Users calculate PIPS scores by an intuitive proportion-based scoring convention. Factor analyses from 72 departments at four institutions (N = 891) support a 2- or 5-factor solution for the PIPS; both models include all 24 instructional practice items and have good model fit statistics. Factors in the 2-factor model include (a) instructor-centered practices, nine items; and (b) student-centered practices, 13 items. Factors in the 5-factor model include (a) student-student interactions, six items; (b) content delivery, four items; (c) formative assessment, five items; (d) student-content engagement, five items; and (e) summative assessment, four items. In this article, we describe our development and validation processes, provide scoring conventions and outputs for results, and describe wider applications of the instrument.

MeSH terms

  • Demography
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interdisciplinary Studies / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Models, Educational
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sample Size
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Teaching / statistics & numerical data*