Mannan- and xylooligosaccharides modulate caecal microbiota and expression of inflammatory-related cytokines and reduce caecal Salmonella Enteritidis colonisation in young chickens

FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2017 Jan;93(1):fiw226. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiw226. Epub 2016 Nov 2.


Salmonella Enteritidis is a pathogen, which can infect humans and chickens. This study was designed to address the impact of two potential prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS), on the caecal microbiota and expression of cytokines in chickens infected with S. Enteritidis. Newly hatched chicks were assigned to one of five groups: (1) uninfected control, (2) infected control, (3) infected + XOS, (4) infected + MOS and (5) infected + virginiamycin. The number of S. Enteritidis recovered from the caecum was significantly lower, by 1.6 log, in the MOS, and to a less extent (1.0 log) in the XOS-fed birds compared to the infected control. Coprococcus, Ruminococcus and Enterococcus genera were increased in response to MOS, whereas XOS enriched Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Roseburia MOS, but not XOS, lessened the increase of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor alpha factor and interferon-γ in caecal tonsils after challenge. The canonical correspondence analysis for cytokine genes showed a correlation with the composition of the microbial community at the genus level. Thus, MOS and XOS differently changed the relative abundance of specific microbial genera and the immune response during infection, and these changes were correlated with their abilities to reduce S. Enteritidis colonisation.

Keywords: Salmonella Enteritidis; chicken caecal microbiota; mannanoligosaccharides; virginiamycin; xylooligosaccharides.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cecum / metabolism
  • Cecum / microbiology*
  • Chickens
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Glucuronates / metabolism*
  • Mannans / metabolism
  • Oligosaccharides / metabolism*
  • Poultry Diseases / metabolism
  • Poultry Diseases / microbiology*
  • Poultry Diseases / prevention & control
  • Prebiotics
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / metabolism
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / microbiology*
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / prevention & control
  • Salmonella enteritidis / classification
  • Salmonella enteritidis / genetics
  • Salmonella enteritidis / isolation & purification*
  • Salmonella enteritidis / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Glucuronates
  • Mannans
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Prebiotics
  • xylooligosaccharide