Eye-Hand Coordination during Visuomotor Adaptation with Different Rotation Angles: Effects of Terminal Visual Feedback

PLoS One. 2016 Nov 3;11(11):e0164602. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164602. eCollection 2016.


This study examined adaptive changes of eye-hand coordination during a visuomotor rotation task under the use of terminal visual feedback. Young adults made reaching movements to targets on a digitizer while looking at targets on a monitor where the rotated feedback (a cursor) of hand movements appeared after each movement. Three rotation angles (30°, 75° and 150°) were examined in three groups in order to vary the task difficulty. The results showed that the 30° group gradually reduced direction errors of reaching with practice and adapted well to the visuomotor rotation. The 75° group made large direction errors of reaching, and the 150° group applied a 180° reversal shift from early practice. The 75°and 150° groups, however, overcompensated the respective rotations at the end of practice. Despite these group differences in adaptive changes of reaching, all groups gradually adapted gaze directions prior to reaching from the target area to the areas related to the final positions of reaching during the course of practice. The adaptive changes of both hand and eye movements in all groups mainly reflected adjustments of movement directions based on explicit knowledge of the applied rotation acquired through practice. Only the 30° group showed small implicit adaptation in both effectors. The results suggest that by adapting gaze directions from the target to the final position of reaching based on explicit knowledge of the visuomotor rotation, the oculomotor system supports the limb-motor system to make precise preplanned adjustments of reaching directions during learning of visuomotor rotation under terminal visual feedback.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Eye Movements*
  • Feedback*
  • Female
  • Hand / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Reaction Time
  • Rotation*
  • Visual Perception / physiology*

Grants and funding

This research was supported by grant Ra 2183/1-3 of the German Research Foundation (DFG) to MKR, http://www.dfg.de. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.