Third phase science: defining a novel model of research into human ageing

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017 Jan 1;22:982-990. doi: 10.2741/4528.


While the current paradigm of research into ageing relies heavily upon reductionist premises, and it has clearly not produced any of the dramatic benefits anticipated in our fight against ageing, the majority of scientists are hesitant, unable or unwilling to consider different or alternative models. In this paper I will discuss some of the shortcomings of a reductionist view of research aimed at finding treatments against ageing degeneration, and I will highlight several areas where proposed future treatments for basic age-related degeneration may be vulnerable to severe criticism. As an alternative model, I will attempt to present a different integrative concept of research which may result in a decrease of the impact of ageing, in participating humans. This model is based on a more inclusive worldview, examining the relationship between humans and their environment, the integration of humans with technology, and the biological consequences of an increasingly techno-cognitive ecosystem.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging* / physiology
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Physical Therapy Modalities