Spatial Control of Primary Ciliogenesis by Subdistal Appendages Alters Sensation-Associated Properties of Cilia

Dev Cell. 2016 Nov 21;39(4):424-437. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.10.006. Epub 2016 Nov 3.


Vertebrate cells can initiate ciliogenesis from centrioles at the cell center, near the Golgi, forming primary cilia confined or submerged in a deep narrow pit created by membrane invagination. How or why cells maintain submerged cilia is unclear. Here, by characterizing centriole subdistal appendages (sDAP) in cells exclusively growing submerged cilia, we found that a group of sDAP components localize to the centriole proximal end through the cohesion factor C-Nap1 and that sDAP function redundantly with C-Nap1 for submerged cilia maintenance. Loss of sDAP and C-Nap1 has no effect on cilia assembly, but it disrupts stable Golgi-cilia association and allows normally submerged cilia to fully surface, losing the deep membrane invagination. Intriguingly, unlike submerged cilia (stationary), surfaced cilia actively respond to mechanical stimuli with motions and can ectopically recruit Hedgehog signaling components in the absence of agonist. We propose that spatial control of ciliogenesis uncouples or specifies sensory properties of cilia.

Keywords: Golgi; Hedgehog pathway; centriole; centrosome; cilia; cohesion; subdistal appendage; submerged cilia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autoantigens / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Centrioles / metabolism
  • Centrioles / ultrastructure
  • Centrosome / metabolism
  • Centrosome / ultrastructure
  • Cilia / metabolism*
  • Cilia / ultrastructure
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Golgi Apparatus / metabolism
  • Golgi Apparatus / ultrastructure
  • Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Microtubule-Organizing Center / metabolism
  • Microtubule-Organizing Center / ultrastructure
  • Microtubules / metabolism
  • Microtubules / ultrastructure
  • Morphogenesis*
  • Motion
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Rheology
  • Sensation
  • Signal Transduction


  • Autoantigens
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cep250 protein, human
  • Hedgehog Proteins