Organophosphate Pesticide Urinary Metabolites Among Latino Immigrants: North Carolina Farmworkers and Non-farmworkers Compared

J Occup Environ Med. 2016 Nov;58(11):1079-1086. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000875.


Background: This analysis documents detections and concentrations of the six dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolite of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides among North Carolina Latino migrant farmworkers, with comparison to non-farmworker Latino immigrants.

Methods: Participants provided up to four urine samples during the 2012 and 2013 agricultural seasons. Composite urine samples for each year were analyzed.

Results: DAP urinary metabolite detections were similar in farmworkers and non-farmworker; for example, for 2012, 75.4% of farmworkers and 67.4% of non-farmworkers and, for 2013, 89.3% of farmworkers and 89.7% of non-farmworkers had dimethylthiophosphate detections. DAP geometric mean concentrations were high; for example, dimethylphosphate concentrations among farmworkers were 11.39 μg/g creatinine for 2012 and 4.49 μg/g creatinine for 2013, while they were 10.49 μg/g creatinine for 2012 and 1.97 μg/g creatinine for 2013 for non-farmworkers CONCLUSIONS:: Research to reduce pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers is needed.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Agriculture*
  • Emigrants and Immigrants
  • Farmers
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • North Carolina
  • Occupational Exposure / analysis*
  • Organophosphates / urine*
  • Pesticides / urine*


  • Organophosphates
  • Pesticides