The anoctamin (ANO, TMEM16) family of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels consists of ten members with different cellular functions (ANO1-10). ANO1 is a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in secretory epithelial cells of exocrine pancreas, salivary glands, or enterocytes. Expression of ANO1 also promotes cell proliferation and migration of tumor cells. ANO6 is essential for Ca2+-dependent scrambling of membrane phospholipids in platelets, red blood cells, and lymphocytes. ANO10 modulates Ca2+ signals in macrophages and has a role in cerebellar ataxia and other neurological disorders. All three anoctamins have been proposed to control intracellular Ca2+ signals. Anoctamins may also form the basolateral Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We show that native human, bovine, porcine, and mouse RPEs express ANO1, ANO6, and ANO10. Growth arrested and confluent RPR cells expressed ANO1 in the plasma membrane, whereas ANO6 and ANO10 were found in the primary cilium. Ussing chamber experiments showed that the application of ATP to the apical (retinal) side of porcine RPE induced a Ca2+-activated Cl- secretion. Activation was inhibited by basolateral (choroidal) administration of the ANO inhibitors AO1, niflumic acid (NFA), and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). The results suggest that ANO1 is responsible for basolateral Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion in RPE, whereas ANO6 and ANO10 may have different functions, such as modulating Ca2+ signals.
Keywords: ANO1; ANO10; ANO6; Anoctamin 1; Anoctamin 10; Anoctamin 6; Ca2+-activated Cl− channels; Chloride secretion; Primary cilium; Retinal pigment epithelium; TMEM16A; TMEM16F; TMEM16K.