Background: The clinical outcome of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (AMN) is not well understood. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcome for the uncertain malignant potential (UMP) subtype of AMNs with those of the mucinous adenoma (MA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) subtypes.
Methods: In this study, AMNs were classified into three groups (MA, UMP, and MAC), and clinical characteristics, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared among the three groups.
Results: The study included 65 AMN patients (26 MA, 20 UMP, and 19 MAC patients). The median follow-up period was 87 months (range 0.3-311.0) months. The symptoms at diagnosis and the presence of pseudomyxoma peritonei were more common in the MAC group than in the MA group (P = 0.012) or the UMP group (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS rates were 95.5% for the MA group, 93.8% for the UMP group, and 78.3% for the MAC group (P < 0.001), and the 5-year PFS rates were 95.2% for the MA group, 95% for the UMP group, and 36.8% for the MAC group (P < 0.001). Thus, OS and PFS did not differ significantly in the MA and UMP groups (P = 0.884 and 0.345, respectively). In contrast, the OS and PFS of the MAC group were worse than in the MA group (P = 0.017 and <0.001, respectively) or the UMP group (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: The long-term outcome for UMP tumors is similar to that for MA tumors and significantly better than for MAC tumors.