A retrospective review was undertaken on all pediatric and reproductive-aged females who underwent cardiac surgery and required cardiopulmonary bypass from 1958 through 1986. The purpose of this study was to define the fertility of these patients after surgery and to compare their reproductive performance with that in the general population. Analysis was complete for 208 patients. These patients make up the following cardiac surgical categories: septal defect repairs, 92; commissurotomies, 60; valve replacements, 46; tetralogy of Fallot repairs, 6; and coronary artery bypass procedures, 4. Of 208 patients, 68 (32.7%) attempted pregnancy after surgery. Infertility was defined in five women as follows: endometriosis, 3; ovulatory dysfunction, 1; unknown, 1. A total of 64 patients conceived 121 pregnancies with the following outcomes: live births, 98; spontaneous abortion, 9; ectopic pregnancy, 2; therapeutic abortion, 12. Our results suggest that infertility is not an apparent disorder after cardiac surgery and that subsequent pregnancy outcomes are similar to those in the general population.