Impact of sleep on osteoporosis: sleep quality is associated with bone stiffness index

Sleep Med. 2016 Sep;25:73-77. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.06.029. Epub 2016 Aug 29.


Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of sleep on osteoporosis.

Methods: The study used a baseline examination of the Hiroshima Sleep and Healthcare study, which was a cross-sectional and cohort study that addressed the association of sleep habits with lifestyle-related diseases. A total of 1032 participants (25-85 years of age) who underwent health examinations were included. Sleep habits, including its timing (bed time), quantity (time in bed [TIB]), and quality, were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The bone stiffness index (SI), a marker of osteoporosis, was measured using quantitative ultrasound systems.

Results: Bed time (r = 0.065, p <0.05), TIB (r = -0.064, p <0.05), and global PSQI score (r = -0.126, p <0.0001) significantly correlated with SI. Multiple regression analyses revealed that after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake, the global PSQI score (β = -0.053, p <0.05) was significantly associated with SI, whereas bed time or TIB was not. Among each component of PSQI, sleep disturbances (β = -0.084, p <0.005) were significantly associated with SI.

Conclusion: Poor sleep quality may be associated with osteoporosis. In particular, increased sleep disturbances may be a key factor in the association between poor sleep quality and osteoporosis.

Keywords: Osteoporosis; Sleep habits; Sleep quality.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Bone and Bones / cytology
  • Bone and Bones / diagnostic imaging*
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Habits
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / complications*
  • Osteoporosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / complications
  • Ultrasonography / methods