Background & aims: How risk factors associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) modify liver disease progression and mortality has been scarcely reported outside of Asia. We aimed to evaluate these risk factors in a French population between 2008 and 2013.
Methods: All individuals discharged with CHB from acute and post-acute care hospitals in Metropolitan France between January 2008 and December 2013 were selected. Associations between liver- and non-liver-related risk factors and both liver disease progression (end-stage liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma) and mortality were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
Results: Overall, liver disease progression, liver transplantation and death were recorded in 7479 (15.5%), 433 (8.2%) and 5299 (11.0%) patients, respectively. An additional liver-related risk factor was recorded in 5426 (72.6%) patients with liver disease progression and 2699 (75.5%) patients with liver transplantation or liver death. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for liver disease progression of hepatitis D virus co-infection, hepatitis C virus co-infection, alcohol use disorders, diabetes mellitus, and other rare causes of chronic liver disease were 1.44 (1.35-1.53), 1.77 (1.68-1.87), 3.37 (3.20-3.55), 1.40 (1.32-1.48), and 2.19 (1.98-2.42), respectively. All liver-related risk factors increased the risk of all-cause mortality, especially after liver disease progression. Adjusted hazard ratios for liver disease progression and in-hospital mortality of HIV co-infection without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were 0.60 (0.52-0.70) and 0.63 (0.51-0.78), respectively.
Conclusions: In France, 2008-2013, liver disease progression among patients with CHB was closely related to other risk factors. HIV co-infected patients without AIDS had better outcomes, suggesting better care in this group of patients.
Lay summary: In France, 2008-2013, about three-quarters of patients with chronic hepatitis B who progressed to a liver-related complication, including liver transplantation and liver-related death, had an additional liver-related risk factor. Despite a higher prevalence of liver-related risk factors, HIV co-infected patients without AIDS had better outcomes. Prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis B is closely related to other risk factors. Treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B, including control of chronic hepatitis B-associated risk factors, is more efficient in HIV co-infected patients.
Keywords: Disease progression; End-stage liver disease; Epidemiology; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Prognosis; Risk factors.
Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.