CAD/CAM milled removable complete dentures: an in vitro evaluation of trueness

Clin Oral Investig. 2017 Jul;21(6):2007-2019. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1989-7. Epub 2016 Nov 8.


Objectives: This study aimed to compare the trueness of one type of CAD/CAM milled complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs) with injection-molding and conventionally manufactured CRDPs.

Materials and methods: Thirty-three CRDPs were fabricated by three different manufacturing techniques (group CAD/CAM (AvaDent™): n = 11; group injection molding (Ivocap™): n = 11; group flask-pack-press: n = 11) using a single master reference model and incubated in artificial saliva for 21 days. The trueness of the entire intaglio surface along with five specific regions of interest (vestibular-flange, palate, tuberosities, alveolar crest, and post-dam areas) was compared. Non-parametric tests were used with a level of significance set at p < 0.05.

Results: At baseline, there was no difference in the trueness of the total intaglio surfaces between the groups. After incubation, only the conventional CRDPs showed a significant improvement in trueness of the entire intaglio surface (p = 0.0044), but improved trueness was confirmed for all three techniques in most individual regions of interest. The 80-20 % /2 median quantile of the CAD/CAM group demonstrated the highest variability of individual readings, probably due to the size of the milling instrument. However, for all three techniques, 80 % of all deviations of the complete intaglio surface after incubation in saliva were below 0.1 mm.

Conclusions: In this in vitro study, the trueness of the intaglio surface of all three investigated techniques seems to remain within a clinically acceptable range. Additional research is warranted on material-related aspects, cost-effectiveness, clinical performance, patient-centered outcomes, as well as other CAD/CAM techniques for CRDP fabrication.

Clinical relevance: The intaglio surface trueness is an essential aspect in the clinical performance of CRDPs.

Keywords: Artificial saliva; CAD/CAM; Complete denture prosthesis; Complete removable dental prosthesis; Dental materials; Injection-molding; PMMA resin; Trueness.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Computer-Aided Design*
  • Dental Materials
  • Denture Design / methods*
  • Denture, Complete*
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Dental Materials