The Compositional HJ-Biplot-A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov 2;17(11):1828. doi: 10.3390/ijms17111828.


Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan) that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain) either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann-Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system) in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables) results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed.

Keywords: compositional HJ-biplot; compositional Mann–Whitney U test; link; tomato.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Ascorbic Acid / analysis
  • Ascorbic Acid / metabolism
  • Carotenoids / analysis*
  • Carotenoids / metabolism
  • Cations, Divalent
  • Citric Acid / analysis
  • Citric Acid / metabolism
  • Computer Graphics
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Fumarates / analysis
  • Fumarates / metabolism
  • Hydroponics
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / chemistry*
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / classification
  • Lycopersicon esculentum / metabolism
  • Magnesium / analysis*
  • Magnesium / metabolism
  • Plant Breeding
  • Plant Proteins / analysis*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Antioxidants
  • Cations, Divalent
  • Fumarates
  • Plant Proteins
  • Citric Acid
  • Carotenoids
  • fumaric acid
  • Magnesium
  • Ascorbic Acid