Human papillomavirus-associated anal and cervical cancers in HIV-infected individuals: incidence and prevention in the antiretroviral therapy era

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017 Jan;12(1):26-30. doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000336.


Purpose of review: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era.

Recent findings: ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited. The prevalence of anal HPV infection, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and anal cancer remain high among individuals on effective ART. The incidence of cervical cancer is high among HIV-infected women, particularly in countries wherein there are no organized cervical cancer prevention programmes. Efforts are in progress to define optimal screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programmes in different clinical settings and to define the efficacy of secondary prevention programmes for prevention of anal cancer.

Summary: HPV-related cancers are likely to remain an important problem in HIV-infected men and women for the foreseeable future, even among those on effective ART.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control