Purpose of review: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era.
Recent findings: ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited. The prevalence of anal HPV infection, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and anal cancer remain high among individuals on effective ART. The incidence of cervical cancer is high among HIV-infected women, particularly in countries wherein there are no organized cervical cancer prevention programmes. Efforts are in progress to define optimal screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programmes in different clinical settings and to define the efficacy of secondary prevention programmes for prevention of anal cancer.
Summary: HPV-related cancers are likely to remain an important problem in HIV-infected men and women for the foreseeable future, even among those on effective ART.