Hold the Pendulum: Rates of Acute Kidney Injury are Increased in Patients Who Receive Resuscitation Volumes Less than Predicted by the Parkland Equation

Ann Surg. 2016 Dec;264(6):1142-1147. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001615.


Objective: To determine whether restrictive fluid resuscitation results in increased rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) or infectious complications.

Background: Studies demonstrate that patients often receive volumes in excess of those predicted by the Parkland equation, with potentially detrimental sequelae. However, the consequences of under-resuscitation are not well-studied.

Methods: Data were collected from a multicenter prospective cohort study. Adults with greater than 20% total burned surface area injury were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the pattern of resuscitation in the first 24 hours: volumes less than (restrictive), equal to, or greater than (excessive) standard resuscitation (4 to 6 cc/kg/% total burned surface area). Multivariable regression analysis was employed to determine the effect of fluid group on AKI, burn wound infections (BWIs), and pneumonia.

Results: Among 330 patients, 33% received restrictive volumes, 39% received standard resuscitation volumes, and 28% received excessive volumes. The standard and excessive groups had higher mean baseline APACHE scores (24.2 vs 16, P < 0.05 and 22.3 vs 16, P < 0.05) than the restrictive group, but were similar in other characteristics. After adjustment for confounders, restrictive resuscitation was associated with greater probability of AKI [odds ratio (OR) 3.25, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.18-8.94]. No difference in the probability of BWI or pneumonia among groups was found (BWI: restrictive vs standard OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.39-1.40, excessive vs standard OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.75-2.60, pneumonia: restrictive vs standard, OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.26-1.05; excessive vs standard, OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.58-2.14).

Conclusions: Restrictive resuscitation is associated with increased AKI, without changes in infectious complications.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Adult
  • Burns / complications*
  • Burns / therapy*
  • Female
  • Fluid Therapy / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome