The function of neural circuits and networks can be controlled, in part, by modulating the synchrony of their components' activities. Network hypersynchrony and altered oscillatory rhythmic activity may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this condition, network activities that support cognition are altered decades before clinical disease onset, and these alterations predict future pathology and brain atrophy. Although the precise causes and pathophysiological consequences of these network alterations remain to be defined, interneuron dysfunction and network abnormalities have emerged as potential mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in AD and related disorders. Here, we explore the concept that modulating these mechanisms may help to improve brain function in these conditions.