Endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections. Incidence, management and prognosis

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2017 Mar;92(3):107-111. doi: 10.1016/j.oftal.2016.09.006. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
[Article in English, Spanish]


Objective: To assess the rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection (IVI) in a «clean room» of a single health centre, following the guidelines of the Spanish Vitreo-Retinal Society (SERV). An analysis was performed on the culture specimens, response to treatment, and final outcomes (guidelines).

Material and methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted on a consecutive case series of patients diagnosed with infectious endophthalmitis after IVI in a single health centre between 2010 and 2015. Intravitreal and systemic treatment was given following the SERV guidelines. The patients were followed up the case was resolved.

Results: There were 5 cases of endophthalmitis out of 9467 IVI (incidence 0.053%). Positive cultures were obtained in aqueous and/or vitreous fluid in all cases, with Staphylococcus epidermidis being involved in 4 out of 5 cases. In 2 cases, final visual acuity was non-light perception due to intractable retinal detachments after resolution of the infectious process.

Conclusions: IVI performed in a «clean room» have a low incidence of endophthalmitis. The most common infectious agent was Staphylococcus species. In 2 cases the functional prognosis was poor.

Keywords: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor; Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Endoftalmitis; Endophthalmitis; Intravitreal injection; Inyección intravítrea; Staphylococcus; Vancomicina; Vancomycin; Vitrectomy; Vitrectomía.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blindness / etiology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Endophthalmitis / drug therapy
  • Endophthalmitis / epidemiology
  • Endophthalmitis / etiology*
  • Endophthalmitis / surgery
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / drug therapy
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / epidemiology
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / etiology*
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial / surgery
  • Female
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Intravitreal Injections / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Micrococcus
  • Middle Aged
  • Moraxella catarrhalis / isolation & purification
  • Moraxellaceae Infections / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Retinal Detachment / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Staphylococcal Infections / etiology
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / isolation & purification*
  • Vancomycin / therapeutic use
  • Vitrectomy


  • Vancomycin