A growing body of evidence shows the effect of magnesium on serum glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, as well as on blood pressure, which strongly suggests that magnesium might play an important role in metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review of clinical evidence derived from randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials, regarding the efficacy of magnesium supplementation on the components of MetS. Using the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May 2016, we looked for randomized controlled trials focused on the effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels, as well as its effects on high blood pressure, irrespective of the magnesium salt used, and with a duration of at least four weeks. Crossover studies, irrespective of blinding criteria, were not included. Results of this review show that magnesium supplementation in individuals with hypomagnesemia can be effective in the treatment of MetS.
Keywords: hyperglycemia; insulin sensitivity; low HDL-cholesterol; magnesium; triglycerides.