Background: We compared glycemia, treatment satisfaction, sleep quality, and cognition using a nighttime Android-based hybrid closed-loop system (Android-HCLS) with sensor-augmented pump with low-glucose suspend function (SAP-LGS) in people with type 1 diabetes.
Materials and methods: An open-label, prospective, randomized crossover study of 16 adults (mean [SD] age 42.1 [9.6] years) and 12 adolescents (15.2 [1.6] years) was conducted. All participants completed four consecutive nights at home with Android-HCLS (proportional integral derivative with insulin feedback algorithm; Medtronic) and SAP-LGS.
Primary outcome: percent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) time (00:00-08:00 h) within target range (72-144 mg/dL). Secondary endpoints: percent CGM time above target (>144 mg/dL); below target (<72 mg/dL); glycemic variability (SD); symptomatic hypoglycemia; adult treatment satisfaction; sleep quality; and cognitive function.
Results: The primary outcome for all participants was not statistically different between Android-HCLS and SAP-LGS (mean [SD] 59.4 [17.9]% vs. 53.1 %; p = 0.14). Adults had greater percent time within target range (57.7 [18.6]% vs. 44.5 [14.5]%; p < 0.006); less time above target (42.0 [18.7]% vs. 52.6 [16.5]%; p = 0.034); lower glycemic variability (35 [10.7] mg/dL vs. 46 [10.7] mg/dL; p = 0.003); and less (median [IQR]) time below target (0.0 [0.0-0.4]% vs. 0.80 [0.0-3.9]%; p = 0.025). In adolescents, time below target was lower with Android-HCLS vs. SAP-LGS (0.0 [0.0-0.0]% vs. 1.8 [0.1-7.9]%; p = 0.011). Nocturnal symptomatic hypoglycemia was less (1 vs. 10; p = 0.007) in adolescents, but not adults (5 vs. 13; p = 0.059). In adults, treatment satisfaction increased by 10 points (p < 0.02). Sleep quality and cognition did not differ.
Conclusions: Android-HCLS in both adults and adolescents reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia and, in adults, improved overnight time in target range and treatment satisfaction compared with SAP-LGS.
Keywords: Artificial pancreas; Closed loop; Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; Insulin pumps; Type 1 diabetes.