We studied 25 patients with crystal-proven gout or roentgenographic evidence of gouty arthritis, or both, in finger joints involved with nodal osteoarthritis (OA). These patients were elderly (mean age 71.4 years), and 72% of them were receiving diuretic therapy. Roentgenographic findings, in addition to features typical of OA, included soft tissue densities (tophi), with or without calcification, large intraarticular erosions, characteristic nonmarginal cortical erosions, and periarticular osteolysis. We conclude that urate crystals mediate episodes of acute inflammation in certain patients with nodal OA. This association is noted primarily in elderly patients of both sexes, especially in those receiving diuretic therapy.