Immune activation, smoking, and vaccine response

AIDS. 2017 Jan 2;31(1):171-173. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001311.


Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic immune activation might fuel interindividual variability in vaccine response in the model of hepatitis B virus vaccine in HIV-1-infected adults. We observed that the marker of inflammation soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) is predictive for vaccine efficiency. We also established that the link between tobacco smoking and impaired vaccine response might be mediated by inflammation. These data are a step forward in personalized vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / pathology*
  • Hepatitis B / prevention & control*
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Male
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood
  • Tobacco Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I