Cryopreservation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Strategies, Challenges, and Future Directions

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016:951:123-135. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45457-3_10.


In recent years, human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have emerged as a vital cell source for in vitro modeling of genetic cardiovascular disorders, drug screening, and in vivo cardiac regeneration research. Looking forward, the ability to efficiently cryopreserve hPSC-CMs without compromising their normal biochemical and physiologic functions will dramatically facilitate their various biomedical applications. Although working protocols for freezing, storing, and thawing hPSC-CMs have been established, the question remains as to whether they are optimal. In this chapter, we discuss our current understanding of cryopreservation appertaining to hPSC-CMs, and proffer key questions regarding the mechanical, contractile, and regenerative properties of cryopreserved hPSC-CMs.

Keywords: Beating; Cell viability; Contraction; Cryopreservation; Electrical coupling; Engraftment; Freezing; Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes; Thawing; Transplantation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cryopreservation / instrumentation
  • Cryopreservation / methods*
  • Cryoprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / pharmacology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Discovery
  • Drugs, Investigational / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Microvascular Angina / pathology
  • Microvascular Angina / therapy*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / pathology
  • Myocardial Ischemia / therapy*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / cytology*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / physiology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / transplantation
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / physiology
  • Regeneration / physiology


  • Cryoprotective Agents
  • Drugs, Investigational
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide