Treatment of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in mice using novel RyR2-modifying drugs

Int J Cardiol. 2017 Jan 15;227:668-673. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.10.078. Epub 2016 Oct 29.


Rationale: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a potentially lethal arrhythmic disorder caused by mutations in the type-2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2). Mutant RyR2 cause abnormal Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which is associated with the development of arrhythmias.

Objective: To determine whether derivatives of tetracaine, a local anesthetic drug with known RyR2 inhibiting action, could prevent CPVT induction by suppression of RyR2-mediated SR Ca2+ leak.

Methods and results: Confocal microscopy was used to assess the effects of tetracaine and 9 derivatives (EL1-EL9) on spontaneous Ca2+ sparks in ventricular myocytes isolated from RyR2-R176Q/+ mice with CPVT. Whereas each derivative suppressed the Ca2+ spark frequency, derivative EL9 was most effective at the screening dose of 500nmol/L. At this high dose, the Ca2+ transient amplitude was not affected in myocytes from WT or R176Q/+ mice. The IC50 of EL9 was determined to be 13nmol/L, which is about 400× time lower than known RyR2 stabilizer K201. EL9 prevented the induction of ventricular tachycardia observed in placebo-treated R176Q/+ mice, without affecting heart rate or cardiac contractility.

Conclusions: Tetracaine derivatives represent a novel class of RyR2 stabilizing drugs that could be used for the treatment of the potentially fatal disorder catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

Keywords: Calcium leak; Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; Sarcoplasmic reticulum; Tetracaine; Type-2 ryanodine receptor.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / genetics*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / drug therapy*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / genetics*
  • Tetracaine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Tetracaine / therapeutic use*
  • Thiazepines / pharmacology
  • Thiazepines / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
  • Thiazepines
  • ryanodine receptor 2. mouse
  • Tetracaine
  • K201 compound

Supplementary concepts

  • Polymorphic catecholergic ventricular tachycardia