Beyond tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Combinations and other agents

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2016 Sep;29(3):271-283. doi: 10.1016/j.beha.2016.10.017. Epub 2016 Oct 20.


The modern therapeutic strategy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been successfully altered by first and subsequently second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, despite high rate of molecular response, minimal residual disease persists in the majority of patients. Thus other approaches are warranted in order to eliminate the leukemia stem cells. Targeting CML stem cells could be of clinical benefit and a number of new agents are currently tested in phase I/II trials. Also immunological approaches with vaccination strategies and combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with various form of interferons are actively ongoing.

Keywords: Immunotherapy; Leukemic stem cells; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy*
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / enzymology
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells / enzymology
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors