Effects of a Resistance and Stretching Training Program on Forward Head and Protracted Shoulder Posture in Adolescents

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2017 Jan;40(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.10.005. Epub 2016 Nov 11.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 16-week resistance and stretching training program applied in physical education (PE) classes on forward head posture and protracted shoulder posture in Portuguese adolescents.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted in 2 secondary schools. One hundred and thirty adolescents (aged 15-17 years) with forward head and protracted shoulder posture were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and Postural Assessment Software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment was used to assess shoulder pain, and neck pain during the last month was self-reported with a single question. These variables were assessed before and after a 16-week intervention period. The control group (n = 46) attended the PE classes, whereas the exercise group (n = 84) received a posture corrective exercise program in addition to PE classes.

Results: A significant increase in cervical and shoulder angles was observed in the intervention group from pretest to posttest (P < .05). For the shoulder pain scores in both groups, there were no significant changes after the 16 weeks.

Conclusions: A 16-week resistance and stretching training program decreased forward head and protracted shoulder postures in adolescents.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02190331.

Keywords: Exercise; Neck; Posture; Rehabilitation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cervical Vertebrae
  • Female
  • Head
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Stretching Exercises*
  • Neck Pain / therapy*
  • Photogrammetry
  • Posture*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Resistance Training*
  • Shoulder
  • Shoulder Pain / therapy*

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02190331