Distinct signaling pathways activate the NF-κB family of transcription factors. The canonical NF-κB-signaling pathway is mediated by IκB kinase 2/β (IKK2/β), while the non-canonical pathway depends on IKK1/α. The structural and biochemical bases for distinct signaling by these otherwise highly similar IKKs are unclear. We report single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystal structures of human IKK1 in dimeric (∼150 kDa) and hexameric (∼450 kDa) forms. The hexamer, which is the representative form in the crystal but comprises only ∼2% of the particles in solution by cryo-EM, is a trimer of IKK1 dimers. While IKK1 hexamers are not detectable in cells, the surface that supports hexamer formation is critical for IKK1-dependent cellular processing of p100 to p52, the hallmark of non-canonical NF-κB signaling. Comparison of this surface to that in IKK2 indicates significant divergence, and it suggests a fundamental role for this surface in signaling by these kinases through distinct pathways.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.