Cytotoxic cells specific for Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells were detected in the peripheral blood leukocytes from a patient with acute toxoplasmosis. The cytotoxicity was mediated by CD5+, CD4-, CD8+ cells. The cytotoxic T cells lysed Toxoplasma-infected target cells with HLA class I restriction. Two types of T cell clones were established from peripheral blood leukocytes of a patient with chronic toxoplasmosis; one was a CD5+, CD4-, CD8+ cytotoxic cell specific for Toxoplasma-infected cells, and the other was a CD5+, CD4+, CD8- proliferative cell that responded to Toxoplasma antigen. Toxoplasma-infected cell-specific cytotoxic cloned T cells recognize the infected target cells in the context of the HLA class I molecules, and the CD8 molecule was involved in the cytotoxicity. Toxoplasma antigen-specific proliferative cloned T cells were stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen-pulsed or Toxoplasma-infected cells in conjunction with HLA-DR molecule on the target cells. Thus, antigen presentation by Toxoplasma-infected cells for activation of both cytotoxic and proliferative T cells has been demonstrated.