Photobiomodulation with Pulsed and Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Laser (810 nm, Al-Ga-As) Augments Dermal Wound Healing in Immunosuppressed Rats

PLoS One. 2016 Nov 18;11(11):e0166705. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166705. eCollection 2016.


Chronic non-healing cutaneous wounds are often vulnerable in one or more repair phases that prevent normal healing and pose challenges to the use of conventional wound care modalities. In immunosuppressed subject, the sequential stages of healing get hampered, which may be the consequences of dysregulated or stagnant wound inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) emerges as a promising drug-free, non-invasive biophysical approach for promoting wound healing, reduction of inflammation, pain and restoration of functions. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the photobiomodulatory effects of 810 nm diode laser (40 mW/cm2; 22.6 J/cm2) with pulsed (10 and 100 Hz, 50% duty cycle) and continuous wave on full-thickness excision-type dermal wound healing in hydrocortisone-induced immunosuppressed rats. Results clearly delineated that 810 nm PBM at 10 Hz was more effective over continuous and 100 Hz frequency in accelerating wound healing by attenuating the pro-inflammatory markers (NF-kB, TNF-α), augmenting wound contraction (α-SM actin), enhancing cellular proliferation, ECM deposition, neovascularization (HIF-1α, VEGF), re-epithelialization along with up-regulated protein expression of FGFR-1, Fibronectin, HSP-90 and TGF-β2 as compared to the non-irradiated controls. Additionally, 810 nm laser irradiation significantly increased CCO activity and cellular ATP contents. Overall, the findings from this study might broaden the current biological mechanism that could be responsible for photobiomodulatory effect mediated through pulsed NIR 810 nm laser (10 Hz) for promoting dermal wound healing in immunosuppressed subjects.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Biopsy
  • Immunocompromised Host*
  • Laser Therapy*
  • Lasers*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Skin / pathology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Wound Healing / immunology*
  • Wound Healing / radiation effects*


  • Biomarkers
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases

Grants and funding

The study was funded by the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Government of India DRDO, DIP-251.