Specific populations of the yeast Geotrichum candidum revealed by molecular typing

Yeast. 2017 Apr;34(4):165-178. doi: 10.1002/yea.3223. Epub 2016 Dec 20.


Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous yeast and an essential component in the production of many soft cheeses. We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with five retained loci (NUP116, URA1, URA3, SAPT4 and PLB3) which were sufficiently divergent to distinguish 40 sequence types (STs) among the 67 G. candidum strains tested. Phylogenetic analyses defined five main clades; one clade was restricted to environmental isolates, three other clades included distinct environmental isolates and dairy strains, while the fifth clade comprised 34 strains (13 STs), among which all but two were isolated from milk, cheese or the dairy environment. These findings suggest an adaptation to the dairy ecosystems by a group of specialized European G. candidum strains. In addition, we developed a polymerase chain reaction inter-long terminal repeat scheme, a fast and reproducible random amplification of polymorphic DNA-like method for G. candidum, to type the closely related dairy strains, which could not be distinguished by MLST. Overall, our findings distinguished two types of dairy strains, one forming a homogeneous group with little genetic diversity, and the other more closely related to environmental isolates. Neither regional nor cheese specificity was observed in the dairy G. candidum strains analysed. This present study sheds light on the genetic diversity of both dairy and environmental strains of G. candidum and thus extends previous characterizations that have focused on the cheese isolates of this species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: Geotrichium candidum; MLST; dairy; inter-LTR; population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA, Fungal / genetics*
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Geotrichum / genetics*
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing*
  • Mycological Typing Techniques
  • Phylogeny*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • DNA, Fungal