Socio-economic factors influencing the development of end-stage renal disease in people with Type 1 diabetes - a longitudinal population study

Diabet Med. 2017 May;34(5):676-682. doi: 10.1111/dme.13289. Epub 2017 Jan 16.


Aims: The development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Type 1 diabetes is multifactorial. Familial socio-economic factors may influence adherence to and understanding of diabetes treatment, and also general health behaviour. We investigate how parental and personal education level and exposure to low economic status, indicated by the need for income support, influence the development of ERSD caused by Type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Participants were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry, which was linked to the Swedish Renal Registry, to find people with ESRD caused by Type 1 diabetes, and to Statistic Sweden to retrieve longitudinal socio-economic data on participants and their parents. Data were analysed using Cox regression modelling.

Results: Of 9287 people with diabetes of duration longer than 14 years, 154 had developed ESRD due to diabetes. Median diabetes duration (range) for all participants was 24.2 years (14.0-36.7 years). Low maternal education (≤ 12 years) more than doubled the risk of developing ESRD, hazard ration (HR) = 2.9 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.7-4.8]. For people with a low personal level of education HR was 5.7 (3.4-9.5). In an adjusted model, the person's own education level had the highest impact on the risk of ESRD. If at least one of the parents had ever received income support the HR was 2.6 (1.9-3.6).

Conclusions: Socio-economic factors, both for the parents and the person with diabetes, have a strong influence on the development of ESRD in Type 1 diabetes. It is important for caregivers to give enough support to more vulnerable people and their families.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Young Adult