Periocular, periorbital, and orbital pathology in liver disease

Surv Ophthalmol. 2017 Mar-Apr;62(2):134-149. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2016.11.002. Epub 2016 Nov 15.


Although the connection is not often apparent, hepatic pathology may be associated with ophthalmic disease. We review the literature concerning the periocular, periorbital, and orbital manifestations of various hepatic disorders. This includes periocular or periorbital jaundice, the impact of hepatitis B and C, eyelid changes in cirrhosis, orbital mass lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma, and cutaneous vascular malformations as they are related to liver disease. The motility disorders associated with Wilson disease, the ophthalmic manifestations of Alagille syndrome, and the effects of liver transplantation are also discussed.

Keywords: Alagille syndrome; cirrhosis; hepatic disease; hepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; orbit; periocular tissues; periorbital tissues.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological*
  • Humans
  • Liver Diseases / complications*
  • Orbit / diagnostic imaging*
  • Orbital Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Orbital Diseases / etiology*