Context: Evidence of an association between dietary patterns and individual foods and the risk of overall mortality among cancer survivors has not been reviewed systematically.
Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis of cohort studies was to investigate the association between food intake and dietary patterns and overall mortality among cancer survivors.
Data sources: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched.
Study selection: A total of 117 studies enrolling 209 597 cancer survivors were included.
Data extraction: The following data were extracted: study location, types of outcome, population characteristics, dietary assessment method, risk estimates, and adjustment factors.
Results: Higher intakes of vegetables and fish were inversely associated with overall mortality, and higher alcohol consumption was positively associated with overall mortality (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 1.02-1.16). Adherence to the highest category of diet quality was inversely associated with overall mortality (RR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.72-0.85; postdiagnosis RR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.71-0.89), as was adherence to the highest category of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern (RR, 0.81; 95%CI, 0.67-0.98; postdiagnosis RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.60-0.99). The Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of overall mortality (RR, 1.46; 95%CI, 1.27-1.68; postdiagnosis RR, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.24-1.85).
Conclusion: Adherence to a high-quality diet and a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with overall mortality among cancer survivors, whereas a Western dietary pattern is positively associated with overall mortality in this population.
Keywords: cancer recurrence; cancer survivors; dietary patterns; food intake; meta-analysis; overall mortality.
© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.